声明: 今こそSTOP!代理出産

私たちは様々な民族や宗教、文化、そして社会経済的背景をもつ女性や男性です。私たちは代理出産契約により搾取・収奪されている女性や子どもへの懸念を共有しており、この現状に異を唱えるためここに集まりました。

私たちは、多くの人が、親にならねばならないと渇望していることは認識しています。しかし、多くの願望がそうであるように、そこには限界があるはずです。人権は、その限界とは何であるべきかを明確にする重要な指標をもたらしてくれます。代理出産は中止されるべきです。それは、女性と子どもたちの人権を蹂躙する行為です。

代理出産はしばしば、貧困層の女性の搾取や収奪のうえに成り立ちます。多くの事例で、売らねばならないのは貧しい人々で、購入できるのは裕福な人たちです。こうした不平等な取引構造は、低い報酬、強制、劣悪なヘルスケア、そして代理母となる女性の短期的・長期的に深刻な健康リスクについて、女性たちが知らないまま、またはそれを知らされていながらも同意してしまう、という結果をもたらします。

代理出産実施に係る医学的処置は、必然的に、代理母や卵子を売る女性、生殖技術の利用を経て生みだされる子どもたちへのリスクを伴います。女性へのリスクには、卵巣過剰刺激症候群(OHSS)、卵巣捻転、卵巣嚢腫、慢性的な骨盤痛、早発閉経、妊孕力の喪失(自らが不妊になる)、生殖器のがん、血栓、腎疾患、脳梗塞、そしていくつかは死に至るケースが含まれます。他者の卵子で妊娠した女性は妊娠高血圧腎症や、高血圧症のリスクが非常に高くなります。

生殖技術を用いて――たいていは代理出産を利用し――生みだされた子どもたちもまた、早産、死産、低体重児、胎児奇形、高血圧などを含む健康リスクに直面します。代理出産による妊娠は、医学の専門家がこれまで一貫して強調してきた、妊娠で生じる母と子の自然な結びつきを、意図的に切り離します。母と胎児とのつながりは、疑う余地もないほど親密です。(訳者注:これまでの研究では、妊娠中に胎児と母胎の間に、細胞レベルで様々なやりとりが行われていることが確認されているうえ、近年では、それらが母胎の脳に影響する可能性も指摘されています)。このつながりが長期的に断ち切られれば、母子の双方に対し影響が生じます。代理出産の合法化は、この潜在的な害悪を制度化するものです。

商業的代理出産は、子どもの人身売買とほとんど同じ行為だと私たちは考えます。たとえ非商業的代理出産(つまり無償か「利他的」に行われるもの)でも、女性と子どもたちがこのような危険を被る行為は禁止されるべきです。

異性愛者であれ同性愛者であれ、または独身でいることを選んでいる人であれ、何人も子どもへの権利は持っていません。私たちは世界の各国政府と国際的コミュニティーの指導者たちにこの行為に終止符をうち、今こそ代理出産を止めるために協働することを求めて立ち上がります。

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Original Individual Signatories

Kathleen Sloan
Feminist leader, activist, and author
USA
Phyllis Chesler, Ph.D.
Emerita Professor of Psychology, Feminist activist, Scholar and Author of Sacred Bond: The Legacy of Baby M
USA
Marjorie Murphey Campbell, J.D.
Founder of NewFeminism.co
USA
Renate Klein, Ph.D.
Biologist, social scientist, and coordinator FINRRAGE (Feminist International Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering)
Australia
Ruchira Gupta
Founder and President, Apne Aap Women Worldwide
India
Jennifer Lahl
Founder and President of the Center for Bioethics and Culture Network
USA
Janice G. Raymond, Ph.D.
Professor Emerita University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and author of Women as Wombs: Reproductive Technologies and the Battle Over Women’s Freedom
USA
Kajsa Ekis Ekman
author of Being and Being Bought: Prostitution, Surrogacy and the Split Self
Sweden
Jessica Kern
Product of a surrogate pregnancy
USA
Sylviane Agacinski
Feminist philosopher, author of Corps en Miettes
France
Gail Robinson
“Surrogate” Mother
USA
Michel Onfray
Philosopher and Writer
France
Farida Akhter
Women’s rights and health activist
Bangladesh
Tanya Lynn
Surrogate mother
USA
Gary Powell
LGBT activist and public administration campaigner
United Kingdom
Elisa Anne Gomez
Surrogate mother
USA
Donna Hughes
Eleanor M. and Oscar M. Endowed Chair in Women’s Studies, University of Rhode Island
USA
Helen Alvare, J.D.
Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law
USA
Gaëlle Cariati
Graduate student in International Relations from University of Calabria
Italy
Julie Bindel
Writer, author, broadcaster, and feminist campaigner against violence against women and children
United Kingdom
Deborah Hornstra
M.A. Health Advocacy, Sarah Lawrence College
USA
Gertrud Åström
Gender equality expert, feminist activist, president of the Swedish Women’s Lobby
Sweden
Lord David Alton
Member of British Parliament
United Kingdom
Matthew Eppinette
Executive Director, The Center for Bioethics and Culture
USA
Robert Oscar Lopez, Ph.D.
President of the International Children’s Rights Institute
USA
Alana Newman
Founder of The Anonymous Us Project and Advocate for Donor-Conceived People
USA
Charles C. Camosy, Ph.D.
Associate professor of theological and social ethics, Fordham University
USA
Christopher White
Director of Research and Education, The Center for Bioethics and Culture
USA
C. Ben Mitchell, Ph.D.
Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, Graves Professor of Moral Philosophy, Union UniversityUSA
Evan Grae Davis
Filmmaker and director of It’s a Girl
USA
Katy Doran
Donor Conceived Activist
USA
Matt Doran
Founder of the free social network: www.DonorChildren.comDonor Conceived Advocate Connecting Biological Family and the Community
USA
Claudia Corrigan D’Arcy
Board Member of Adoption Rights Coalition
USA
Jeffrey M. Togman, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Political Science and Film at Seton Hall University
Director of the film We’re Not Blood
USA
Cathi Swett, J.D.
Attorney and Adult Adoptee Advocate
USA
Mirah Riben
Author of The Stork Market: America’s Multi-Billion Dollar Unregulated Adoption Industry
USA
Miriam Grossman, M.D.
Adolescent and adult psychiatrist and women’s health activist. Author Unprotected and You’re Teaching My Child WHAT?
USA
Melinda Tankard Reist
Writer, feminist, activist
Australia
Nkechi Asogwa, M.D.
President,Doctors Health Initiative
Nigeria
Adesuwa Onyenokwe
Publisher and Editor in chief of TW Magazine
Nigeria
Ego Egonu, M.D.
Physician, Derry Clinics
Nigeria
Sanjay Khanna
Convener, Socio-Economic Welfare Society
India
Babita Khanna
Gen. Secretary, Socio-Economic Welfare Society
India
Lalit Pasricha
Project Coordinator, Socio-Economic Welfare Society
Canada
Eliette Abécassis
Writer, author of Qumran and La Répudiée, which inspired Amos Gitai’s film Kadosh
France
Johanna Langhorst
Reporter
Sweden
Eberechukwu Okey-Onyema
Executive Director, Healthy Living and Women Empowerment Initiative
Nigeria
Annika Lundegårdh, R.N.
Nurse and President of the Women’s Committee of the Centre Party in Uppsala
Sweden
Nina Björk
Author
Sweden
Ebon Kram
Chairman
Sweden
Erika Beckman
Chairman, National Organization Against Sexual Abuse
Sweden
Jane Eriksson
Vice-Chairman, National Organization Against Sexual Abuse
Sweden
Yvonne Hirdman
Professor of Women’s History at the Gothenburg University
Sweden
Karin Svensson
Chairwoman, Roks, The National Organization for Women´s Shelter and Young Women’s Shelter
Sweden
Ebba Witt-Brattstrom
Author, Feminist, and Professor in Nordic Literature, University of Helsinki
Finland
Nina Rose, M.D.
Vice President, Swedish Women Doctor’s Society
Sweden
Caroline Norma, Ph.D.
Lecturer in Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University
Australia
Jorunn Friis Reset
Organisational secretary, Women’s Front
Norway
Helen Pringle, Ph.D.
Senior Lecturer in the School of Social Sciences, University of New South Wales
Australia
Seyran Duran
Chairman of the Kurdistan Women’s Association in Sweden
Sweden
Ruth Nordström
President of Scandinavian Human Rights Lawyers
Sweden
Rebecca Ahlstrand
Attorney, Scandinavian Human Rights Lawyers
Sweden
Maria Mies, Ph.D.
Founding member of FINRRAGE (Feminist International Network of Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering)
Germany
Shagufta Omar
President, Pakistan Chapter of the International Muslim Women UnionGeneral Secretary, Women’s Aid Trust
Pakistan
Mia Fahlén, M.D.
Senior Consultant Surgeon
Sweden
Ana Reis, M.D.
Feminist physician, former representative of FINRRAGE
Brazil
Viviane Teitelbaum
President, European Women’s Lobby
Belgium
Myfanwy Cummerford
Donor conceived advocate and Founder of TangledWebs
Australia
Isla MacGregor
Tasmanian Public Interest Advocate, Whistleblowers Tasmania
Australia
Simone Andrea
Survivor of Prostitution, Director of NorMAC
Australia
Martine Segalen
Professor Emeritus in Ethnology, Université Paris Ouest
France
Genevieve Couraud
President of the Observatoire Droits des Femmes CG-13President of ECVF, Politicians Against Violence Against Women
France
Yvette Roudy
Former Minister for Women’s Rights
France
Irene Tabellion
President, La Lune, L’Association Strasbourgeoise de Femmes Homosexuelles
France
Marie-Josèphe Bonnet, Ph.D.
Historian of Women, Arts, and the Second World War
France
Anne-Yvonne Le Dain
Deputy, Socialist Party
France
Elfriede Hammerl
Journalist and Writer
Austria
Nora Tenenbaum
Representative, Coordination of Associations for the Right to Abortion and Contraception
France
Maya Surduts
Representative Coordination of Associations for the Right to Abortion and Contraception
France
Nnenna Chikezie
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development
Nigeria
Alice Schwarzer
Editor of EMMA and co-founder of Mouvement de Liberation des Femmes (MLF)
Germany
Nathalie Heinich
Sociologist and Research director at Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
France
Monette Vacquin
Psychoanalyst and author of Frankenstein et les Délires de la Raison and Main Basse sur les Vivants
France
José Bové
Member of the European Parliament (Green Group), Former Chairman of Confederation Paysanne / Via Campesina, and Founding member of ATTAC France
France
Emma Sahlén Grip
Press Officer, National Organization for Women’s and Girls Shelters in Sweden, RoksSweden
Arun Dohle
Executive Director of Against Child Trafficking
Germany
Roelie Post
Author of Romania for Export Only: the Untold Story of the Romanian Orphans
The Netherlands
Anjali Pawar
Director, Sakhee Pune
India
Gita Ramaswamy
Concerned activist for child rights
India
Jin Vilsgaard
Contact person for ACT
Denmark
Kat Pinder
Sex trade survivor activist and Member, Amnesty International against pimps and buyers
Australia
Martine Billard
Deputy of Paris 2002-2012, secretary of the delegation for women’s rights of the National Assembly 2007-2012, author of a proposition of law against violence against women in 2007 with Marie-George Buffet
France
Gloria Casas Vila
Spanish/Swiss activist against prostitution and surrogacy
Etienne Dujardin
Lawyer
Belgium
Sophie Heine, Ph.D.
Senior Research Fellow at Egmont, Royal Institute for International Relations
Belgium
Josina Kamerling
Head of Regulatory Outreach
Belgium
Michel Ghins
Action for family, President
Belgium
Xavier Lombard
Companies founder
Belgium
Bernard Michelet
Companies administrator
Belgium
Tara Hewitt
LGBT Activist
United Kingdom

Organizational Signatories

  • Swedish Women Doctor’s Society (Sweden)
  • Roks, The National Organization for Women’s Shelter and Young Women’s Shelter (Sweden)
  • Swedish Women’s Lobby (Sweden)
  • Kurdistan Women’s Association in Sweden (Sweden)
  • Women’s Organisation’s Committee on Alcohol and Drug Issues (Sweden)
  • European Women’s Lobby (Belgium)
  • LeCorp (France)
  • La Lune, L’Association Strasbourgeoise de Femmes Homosexuelles (France)
  • Coordination of Associations for the Right to Abortion and Contraception (France)
  • Cercle d’Etude de Réformes Féministes (CERF) (France)
  • EMMA (Germany)
  • Against Child Trafficking (ACT) (The Netherlands)
  • Sakhee Pune (India)
  • The Center for Bioethics and Culture (USA)
  • FINRRAGE (Australia)
  • Women’s Bioethics Alliance (Australia)
  • Scandinavian Human Rights Lawyers (Norway)
  • Se non ora quando – Libere (Italy)
  • Generazione Famiglia (Italy)
  • Make Mothers Matter (France)
  • Feministas Mexicanas contra Vientres de Alquiler (Femmva) (Mexico)
  • Stop Vientres de Alquiler (Spain)
  • Abolish Surrogacy (Australia)
  • Women’s Liberation Front (USA)
  • Breaking Free (USA)
  • OBJECT (UK)
  • Nordic Model Now! (UK)

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